Fausto O. Sarmiento

Professor, Department of Geography
Director, Neotropical Montology Collaboratory


Ph.D. , The University of Georgia

MS, The Ohio State University

BS, Catholic University of Ecuador

Areas of Expertise
  • Neotropical mountains
  • Biogeography
  • Political ecology
  • Cultural landscapes
Research Interests
  • Neotropical mountains
  • Biogeography
  • Political ecology
  • Cultural landscapes
Selected Publications

Sarmiento, F.O.  2020.  The Montology Manifesto: Echoes towards a Transdisciplinary Science of Mountains. Journal of Mountain Science, 17(9). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-019-5536-2. 

Rojas, N., D.A. Cotrina, E. Barboza, M. Barrena, F.O. Sarmiento, D.A. Sotomayor, M. Oliva and R. Salas. 2020. Current and future distribution of five timber forest species in Amazonas, Northeast Peru: Contributions towards a restoration strategy. Diversity, 12, 305.  https://doi.org/10.3390/d12080305

Sarmiento, F.O., M.B. Bush, W. Church, P. VanValkenburgh, M. Oliva, E. Delgado, S. Fernandez and N. Rojas. 2020. Mountain science poised to help ecotourism in Peruvian cloud forests.  PAGES 28(1), 22-23.  https://doi.org/10.22498/pages.28.1.22

Sarmiento, F.O. and G. Kooperman. 2019. A Socio-Hydrological Perspective on Recent and Future Precipitation Changes Over Tropical Montane Cloud Forests in the Andes. Frontiers in Earth Sciences, 7, Article 324.  https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2019.00324

Sarmiento, F.O., J.A. Gonzalez, E.O. Lavilla, M. Donoso and J.T. Ibarra. 2019. Onomastic misnomers in the construction of faulty Andeanity and week Andeaness: Biocultural Microrefugia in the Andes. Pirineos, Journal of Mountain Ecology, 174, 1-16.   https://doi.org/10.3989/pirineos.2019.174009

Pinaya, J., F. Cruz, G. Ceccantini , P. Corrêa , N. Pitman , F. Vemado, M. Lopez, A. Pereira, C. Grohmann, C. Chiessi, N. Strikis, I. Horák-Terra , W. Pinaya , V. de Medeiros, R. Santos, T. Akabane, M. Silva, R. Cheddadi, M Bush, A-J. Henrot, L. François, A. Hambuckers, F. Boyer, M. Carré, E. Coissac, F. Ficetola, K. Huang, A-M. Lézine, M. Nourelbait, A. Rhoujjati, P. Taberlet, F.O. Sarmiento, D. Abel-Schaad, F. Alba-Sánchez, Z. Zheng, P. de Oliveira. 2019. Brazilian montane rainforests expansion induced by Heinrich Stadial 1 event. Nature Scientific Reports, 9, Article 17912. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-53036-1

Sarmiento, F.O. and C. Cotacachi. 2019. Framing Cultural Ecosystem Services in the Andes: Utawallu runakuna as Sentinels of Values for Biocultural Heritage Conservation. Satoyama Review, 5(1), 25-40.

Subramanian, S. M., Yiu, E., Dasgupta, R., Takahashi, Y., Deja, E., Dublin, D., Natori, Y., Sarmiento, F.O., Osei-Owusu, Y., Quintero-Ángel, A., San Vicente-Tello, A., Díaz-Varela, E.,. Díaz-Varela, R.A., Titumir, R. Al M., Karimova, P.G., Lee, K.C., Ojelel, S., Lacaste, A.V., Belegal, J.A.C., Edake, S., Guibrunet, L., Kubo, H., Nishi, M., and R. Kozar. 2019. How multiple values influence decisions on sustainable use in socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes. Satoyama Review, 5, 1-15.

Minga, D., Cordero, P., Donoso, M., Montesinos, K., Jimenez, M., Antaki, B. and Sarmiento, F.O. 2019. The Uchucay microrefugium: an Interandean forest relict with an important arboreal richness in Southern Ecuador. Pirineos, Journal of Mountain Ecology, 174, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.3989/pirineos.2019.174007

Sarmiento, F.O., J.T. Ibarra, A. Barreau, C. Marchant, J. González, M. Oliva and M. Donoso. 2019. Montology: A research agenda for complex foodscapes and biocultural microrefugia in tropical and temperate Andes. Journal of Agriculture, Food and Development, 5, 9-21. https://doi.org/10.30635/2415-0142.2019.05.2

Donoso-Correa, M.E and Sarmiento, F.O. 2019. Geospatial Memory and Joblessness interpolated: International migration oxymora in the city of Biblián, Southern Ecuador. American Journal of Geographic Information System, 8(2), 60-8

*Sarmiento, F.O., A. Vázques, G. Aguilar, R. Cheddadi, M. Bush, M. Donoso, E. Palacios, & I. Kong. 2018. Trees Microrefugia and Community-based Conservation in Tropandean Mountainscapes: A Bio-Cultural Approach for Heritage Management of “El Collay” Protected Forest in Southeastern Ecuador. Satoyama Review, 4(1), 95-109.

*Subramanian S.M., Yiu E., Leimona, B., Villanueva A.B., E.R. Díaz-Varela, J-T. Chao, L-L. Lee, Tschentscher, T., Calispa Quinto, A.N., Dublin, D., Quintero, A., Orejuela, S., Wekesa, Ch., Sarmiento, F.O., Leles, B., Matsumoto, I., López-Casero, F., Takahashi, Y., and R. Dasgupta. 2018. Enhancing effective area-based conservation through the sustainable use of biodiversity in socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes (SEPLS). Satoyama Review, 4(1), 1-13.

Frolich, L., J.A. Caraguay, O. Rosales, P. Castro, A. Cárdenas, P.I. Llanga, A.M. Luvero, F. Rea, A.E. Jácome, E. Guevara, F.O. Sarmiento.  2018.  Ecología Humana y la Urbe Inteligente: Utilizando mapeo interactive para el análisis socio-ambiental del uso de agua y de energía eléctrica en Ibarra – Ecuador.  Revista Ciencia, 19(2), 10-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.24133/ciencia.v19i2.533

Cheddadi R., A. Henrot, L. François, F. Boyer, M. Bush, M. Carré, E. Coissac, P. De Oliveira, F. Ficetola, A. Hambuckers, K. Huang K, A.M. Lézine, M. Nourelbait, A. Rhoujjati, P. Taberlet, F.O. Sarmiento, D. Abel-Schaad, F. Alba-Sánchez and Z. Zheng.  2017. Microrefugia, Climate Change, and Conservation of Cedrus atlantica in the Rif Mountains, Morocco. Frontiers of Ecology and Evolution 5(114): 1-15.

Sarmiento, F.O., J.T. Ibarra, A. Barreau, J.C. Pizarro, R. Rozzi, J.A. González & L.M. Frolich. 2017.  Applied Montology Using Critical Biogeography in the Andes   Annals of the Association of American Geographers 107(2): 416-428. (Special issue on Mountains).

*Sarmiento, F.O. 2016. Identity, imaginaries and ideality: understanding the biocultural landscape of the Andes through the iconic Andean lapwing (Vanellus resplendens). Revista Chilena de Ornitología 22(1): 38-50

*Ives, J.D., B. Messerli & F.O. Sarmiento.  2016.  Obituary for a Mountain Champion: Lawrence Hamilton, 1925-2016.  Mountain Research and Development 36(4): 569-570.

*Sarmiento, F.O. 2013. Ruinas Reificadas: El revivir indígena, los paisajes culturales y la conservación de sitios sagrados. Revista Parques (1): 1-14.

*Sarmiento, F.O. & L. Frolich.  2012.  From mindscapes to worldscapes: Navigating the ever-changing topography of sustainability. Journal of Sustainability Education (3): 1-3.

Carter, L.E. and F.O. Sarmiento. 2011. Cotacacheños and Otavaleños: Local Perceptions of Sacred Sites for Farmscape Conservation in Highland Ecuador. Journal of Human Ecology 35(1): 61-70.

Sarmiento, F.O. and D.R. Butler.  2011.  Where Do Mountain Geographers Publish? Disciplinary Trends and Career Development Choices.  Mountain Research and Development 31(1): 61-67.

Sarmiento, F.O.  2010.  The Lapwing in Andean Ethnoecology: Proxy for Landscape Transformation.  The Geographical Review 100(2): 229-245.

Sarmiento, F.O.  2010. Obituary for a Mountain Man: Robert Rhoades.  Mountain Research and Development. 30(2):188.

*Gordon, B., Sarmiento, F.O., Jones, J. and R. Russo.  2010. Sustainability Education in Practice: Appropriation of Rurality by the Global Migrants of Costa Rica.  Journal of Sustainability Education 1(1): 116-135.

*Menhard, D. and F.O. Sarmiento.  2010. Landscape Transitions: Integration of Pedagogical Approaches for Sustainability in Tropical American Mountain Communities. Journal of Sustainability Education 1(1): 113-115.

Gonzalez, J.A., F.O. Sarmiento and J.L. Minetti.  2008.  Cambios Globales en el Noroeste Argentino (21°-32° S) con Referencias a la Provincia más Pequeña de Argentina: Tucumán.  Pirineos 163: 51-62.

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2008.  Andes Mountains and Human Dimensions of Global Change: An Overview.  Pirineos 163: 7-13.

Mahmud, A. and Sarmiento, F.O.  2008.  Changing the role of rural women in Punjab province, Pakistan.  Geographische Rundschau 4(2): 4-9.

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2005.  Ethnoecology of the tropical Andes: Avian indicators of landscape change in highland Ecuador.  Pirineos 160: 87-119.

Pugh, J. and F.O. Sarmiento.  2004.  Selling the public on sustainable watershed conservation.  Bulletin of Latin American Research 23(3): 322-337.

Chaurette, E., F.O. Sarmiento and J. Rodríguez.  2003.  A protected landscape candidate in the Tropical Andes of Ecuador. Parks 13(2): 42-51.

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2002.  Gerardo Budowski: A beacon to conservation of tropical mountains.  Mountain Research and Development 22(2): 197-198.

Sarmiento, F.O.  2002.  Impulsores de cambio del paisaje: dinámica de las líneas de árboles en la montología neotropicalEcotrópicos 15(2): 129-146. [Drivers of landscape change: Treeline dynamics in neotropical montology]

Sarmiento, F.O. 2002.  Anthropogenic landscape change in highland Ecuador.  The Geographical Review 92(2): 213-234.

Sarmiento, F.O. and L. Frolich. 2002.  Andean cloud forest treelines: Naturalness, agriculture and the human dimension. Mountain Research and Development 22(3): 278-287.

Sarmiento F.O. 2001. Les enjeux de la recherche sur les montagnes en matière de terminologie et de connaissances: application à l’espace andin. Revue de Géographie Alpine 89(2): 73-77.  [Lexical and cognitive issues for mountain research: A need to understand Andean landscapes]

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2000.  Human impacts in man-aged tropandean landscapes: Breaking mountain paradigms.  Ambio 29(7): 423-431.

Sarmiento, F.O.  1999.  To Mt. Chimborazo: in the steps of Alexander von Humboldt.  Mountain Research and Development 19(2): 77-78.

Myster, R. and F.O. Sarmiento.  1998.   Seed inputs to microsite patch recovery on two Tropandean landslides in Ecuador.  Restoration Ecology 6(1): 1-10.

Sarmiento, F.O. 1997.   Arrested succession in pastures hinders regeneration of Tropandean forests and shreds mountain landscapes. Environmental Conservation 24(1): 14-23.

*Sarmiento, F.O. 1997.  Landscape regeneration by seeds and successional pathways to restore fragile Tropandean slopes.  Mountain Research and Development 17(3): 239-252.

Sarmiento, F.O. 1997.  The birthplace of ecology: Tropandean ecoregion of Ecuador, an endangered landscape.  Environmental Conservation 24(1): 3-4.

Sarmiento, F.O. 1995.  The birthplace of ecology.  Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 76(2): 104-105.

*Sarmiento, F.O. 1994.  Human impacts on the cloud forests of the Upper Guayllabamba River, Ecuador.  Ecological Studies 110: 284-295.


Sarmiento, F.O. & S. Hitchner.  (editors).  2017.  Indigeneity and the Sacred: Indigenous Revival and the Conservation of Sacred Natural Sites in the Americas. Berghahn Books New York. 266pp.

Sarmiento, F.O. 2012.  Contesting Páramo: Critical Biogeography of the Northern Andean Highlands.  Kona Publishing.  Higher Education Division.  Charlotte, NC. 150pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O. (editor).  2003.  Las Montañas del Mundo: Una prioridad global con perspectivas latinoamericanas.  Editorial Abya-Yala, Quito: 669pp.   [Mountains of the World: A global priority with Latin American perspectives]

*Sarmiento, F.O. and J. Hidalgo (editores).  1999.  Desarrollo Sustentable de Montañas: Entendiendo las interfaces ecológicas para la gestión de los paisajes culturales en los Andes.  Memorias del III Simposio Internacional AMA.  Editorial Corporación Editora Nacional. Quito: 406 pp.  [Sustainable Mountain Development: Understanding ecological interfaces for the management of Andean cultural landscapes]

Sarmiento, F.O. 1987. Antología Ecológica del Ecuador: desde la selva hasta el mar.  Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana.   Quito: 382 pp.   [Ecological Anthology of Ecuador: from the jungle to the sea]

Sarmiento, F.O. 1982.  Ecología y sus leyes. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. Quito: 65pp.  [The laws of Ecology]

Reference and Textbooks

*Debarbieux, B., S. Brunel, H. Gumuchian, PS. Ramakhrishnan, V. Pototskaya and F.O. Sarmiento. 2008. Enfants des Montagnes du Monde.  Editorial Glenat: Grenoble. 160pp. [Children of the Mountains of the World]

*Naveh, Z., A. Lieberman, F. O. Sarmiento and C. Ghersa. 2002.  Ecología de Paisajes. Teoría y Aplicación. Edición de estudiantes. Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires, EUDEBA.  Argentina.  Buenos Aires: 571pp.  [Landscape Ecology: theory and application. Students’ edition].  Translation and adaptation with new text and local examples to Latin American audiences.

*Sarmiento, F. O. 2001.  Diccionario de Ecología de Paisajes, Conservación y Desarrollo Sustentable para Latinoamérica.  Editorial Abya-Yala.  Quito:  226pp.  [Dictionary of Landscape Ecology, Conservation and Sustainable Development for Latin America]                           < http://www.ensayistas.org/critica/ecologia/diccionario/>

*Odum, E. P. and F. O. Sarmiento.  1998.  La Ecología: el puente entre ciencia y sociedad.   Editorial McGraw-Hill Interamericana de México. México, DF: 343pp.   [Ecology: the bridge between science and society]. Translation and adaptation with new text and local examples to Latin American audiences.

Sarmiento, F. O. 1991. (Updated edition) Diccionario Ecológico Energético Ecuatoriano  for the III International Workshop on Environmental Journalism.   The Conservation Trust of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR: 186pp.   [Ecuadorian Ecological/Energy Dictionary]

Sarmiento, F. O.1986.  Diccionario Ecológico Energético Ecuatoriano.  Editorial Unión Nacional de Periodistas. Quito: 186pp.   [Ecuadorian Ecological/Energy Dictionary]

*Sarmiento, F.O., Oviedo, G., Trávez, G. and Y. Célleri.  1985.   Guías Didácticas de Educación Ambiental.  Nivel Primario.   3 Tomos.  Fundación Natura.   Ed. Mantilla  Hnos.  Quito: 234pp. [Environmental education teaching guides]

Book chapters

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2017. Syncretic farmscape transformation in the Andes: an application of Borsdorf’s religious geographies of the Andes.  Pp.35-53.  In: Sanchez, R., Hidalgo, R. and Arenas, F. (Editors).  Re-conociendo las geografías de América Latina y el Caribe.  Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago.

*Sarmiento, F.O. 2016.    Neotropical Mountains Beyond Water Supply: Environmental Services as a Trifecta of Sustainable Mountain Development. Pp. 309-324. In: Greenwood, G. & J. Shroder (editors). Mountain Ice and Water: Investigations of the hydrologic cycle in alpine environments  Elsevier. New York.

*Resler, L. and F.O. Sarmiento.  2016.  Mountain Geographies.  Oxford Bibliographies in Geography.  Ed. Barney Warf. New York: Oxford University Press.

*Sarmiento, F.O. 2015. On the Antlers of a Trilemma: Rediscovering Andean Sacred Sites. Chapter 5. In: Rozzi, R., S.T.A. Pickett, J. B. Callicot, F. S. T. Chapin III, M.E. Power and J.J. Armesto (editors). Earth Stewardship: Linking Ecology and Ethics in Theory and Practice. New York: Springer.

*Frolich, L., P. Aguirre and F.O. Sarmiento.  2015.  Cuatro mitologías binarias aplicadas a la sustentabilidad de vida urbana: El caso de la ciudad de Ibarra, Ecuador.  Pp35-52.  In:  Aguirre, P. (Ed). Sustentabilidad: Principios y Prácticas. Cuvillier Verlag, Göttingen, Germany.

*Sarmiento, F.O. and X. Viteri O.  2015.  Discursive Heritage: Sustaining Andean Cultural Landscapes Amidst Environmental Change.  Taylor, K., A. St Clair & N.J. Mitchell (Eds). Conserving Cultural Landscapes: Challenges and New Directions.  Routledge, New York.

*Sarmiento, F.O., E. Bernbaum, J, Lennon and J. Brown.  2015. Managing cultural heritage.  In: Worboys, G. et al (editors).  UCN’s Global Guide for Protected Area Management.  E-Book.  Earthscan.  Sydney, Australia.

* Sarmiento, F.O. 2013. Lo Andino: Integrating Stadel’s views into the larger Andean identity paradox for sustainability. In: Borsdorf, A. (Editor). Christopher Stadel Festschrift. Innsbruck. Austrian Academy of Sciences.

*Sarmiento, F.O., R. Russo & B. Gordon. 2013. Tropical Mountains Multifunctionality: Dendritic Appropriation of Rurality or Rhyzomic Community Resilience as Food Security Panacea. Pp. 55-66. In: Pillarisetti, J.R., R. Lawrey & A. Ahmad (editors) Multifunctional Agriculture, Ecology and Food Security: International Perspectives. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

*Sarmiento, F.O. 2013. Paisaje Cultural Patrimonial del Ecuador: Una Categoría de Manejo Territorial. pp. 31-43. In: Ministerio de Cultura y Patrimonio (Editor). Paisajes Culturales: Reflexiones Conceptuales y Metodológicas. Memorias del I Encuentro de Expertos. Cuenca, Ecuador.

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2011.  Sustainability and the Biosphere Reserve: A compromise between Biodiversity, Conservation and Farmscape Transformation.  Pp: 19-23. In: Austrian MAB Committee (editors). Biosphere Reserves in the Mountains of the World. Excellence in the Clouds? An Austrian contribution to the 40th anniversary of UNESCO’s MAB Programme. Austrian Academy of Sciences Press: Vienna. 120pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2010.  Geomorphology of Natural and Human Induced Disasters in Ecuador.  Pp  156-163.  In: Latrubese, E. (editor).  Natural Hazards and Human-Exacerbated Disasters in Latin America.  Volume 13: Special Volumes in Geosmorphology.  Elsevier Science. 510pp.

Sarmiento, F.O.  2009.  Páramo: Language Hegemony and Politics of Translation in Andean Prehensive Environments and Conservation Implications. Pp: 89-95. In:  Victor, R (editor).  Mountains of the World: Ecology, Conservation and Sustainable Development.  Sultan Qaboos University.  Muscat, Oman. 256pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O., C. Cotacachi and L. E. Carter. 2008.  Sacred Imbakucha: Intangibles in the Conservation of Cultural Landscapes in Ecuador.  Pp. 125-144, In: Josep M. Mallarach (editor).  Cultural and Spiritual Values of Protected Landscapes.  Volume 2 in the series, Protected Landscapes and Seascapes.  IUCN and GTZ.  Kaspareg Verlag, Heidelberg. 207pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2008.  Participer Aux Travaux.  Pp.87-113.  In:  B. Debarbieux et al. (editors).  Enfants des Montagnes du Monde.  Editorial Glenat.  Grenoble: France. 160pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2008.  Agrobiodiversity in the farmscapes of the Quijos River in the Tropical Andes, Ecuador.  Pp 22-30.  In:   Amend, T, J. Brown, A. Kothari, A. Phillips and S. Stolton. (editors). Protected Landscapes and Agrobiodiversity Values. Volume 1 in the series, Protected Landscapes and Seascapes.  IUCN and GTZ.  Kaspareg Verlag, Heidelberg. 139pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2007. (With Mallarach, J.M., J. Morrison, A. Kothari, J.A. Atauri and B. Wishitemi)  In defense of protected landscapes: A reply to criticisms of category V and suggestions for improvement. Pp37-42. In:  Dudley, N. and S. Stolton (editors). Defining Protected Areas: An International Conference in Almeria, Spain. IUCN Gland. 176pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O. 2007.  Paisajes culturales e identidad latinoamericana.  Memorias del II Encuentro Cultural Latinoamericano (8pp MS). Instituto de Patrimonio Cultural. Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela. 79pp. [Cultural Landscapes and Latin American Identity: Proceedings of the II Latin American Cultural Encounter]

Sarmiento, F.O.  2006.  Andean Treeline dynamics and the human dimension of landscape change in the Andes.  Pp 233-234.  In:  Price, M. (editor).  Global Change in Mountain Regions.  Sapiens Publishing: Wiltshire, UK.  398pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O., G. Rodríguez and A. Argumedo.  2005.  Cultural landscapes of the Andes: Indigenous and colono culture, traditional knowledge and ethno-ecological heritage.  Pp: 143-156.   In: Brown, J., N. Mitchel and M. Beresford (editors).  The Protected Landscape Approach: Linking Nature, Culture and Community.  World Conservation Union IUCN: Gland and Cambridge: 262pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O., E.O. Box and E. L. Usery. 2004.  GIScience and tropical mountains: A challenge for geoecological research. Pp: 289-307.  In:  Bishop M.P. and J.F. Shroder Jr. (editors).  Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology.  Springer-Praxis Publishing Ltd.: Chichester, UK and Germany: 486pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2003.  Protected landscapes in the Andean context: workshiping the sacred in nature and culture.  Pp.: 239-249.  In:  Harmon, D., and A. Putney (editors).   The Full Value of Parks.  Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group.  Lanham, MA: 347 pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O. and J.J. Hidalgo.  2003.  Las Montañas Latinoamericanas: Una Prioridad Regional. Pp. 37-41. En: Sarmiento, F.O. (editor).  Montañas del Mundo: Una Prioridad Global con Perspectivas Latinoamericanas.  Editorial Abya-Yala, Quito: 669pp.  [Human impact on tropandean landscapes.  In: Mountains of the World: a global priority with Latin American perspectives]

*Sarmiento, F.O. and L. Frolich.  2003.  Impacto humano en los paisajes tropandinos. Pp. 561-580. En: Sarmiento, F.O. (editor).  Montañas del Mundo: Una Prioridad Global con Perspectivas Latinoamericanas.  Editorial Abya-Yala, Quito: 669pp.  [Human impact on tropandean landscapes.  In: Mountains of the World: a global priority with Latin American perspectives]

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2002.  La mejor práctica de manejo para conservación es la Categoría V.  Pp. 43-52. En:  Bandarín, F. (editor).  Paisajes Culturales en Mesoamérica.  UNESCO-Centro de Patrimonio Mundial. San José: 203pp. [Category V as the best management practice for conservation.  In: Mesoamerican Cultural Landscapes]

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2001.  Worshiping the sacred in nature and culture in protected landscapes of the Andes.  Pp. 63-67.  In:  UNESCO thematic expert meeting on Asia-Pacific Sacred Mountains.  World Cultural Center, Agency for Cultural Affairs of Japan, Wakayama Prefecture Government.  Wakayama City: 310pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2001.  Biodiversidad de los paisajes culturales de la ecorregión tropandina.  Pp: 108-109.  En: Primack R., R. Rozzi., P. Feissinger, R. Dirzo and F. Massardo (editors).  Fundamentos de Conservación Biológica: Perspectivas Latinoamericanas.  Fondo de Cultura Económica.  México DF: 796pp.   [Biodiversity of the cultural landscapes of the tropandean ecoregion.  In: Fundamentals of Biological Conservation]

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2001.  Ecuador.  Pp 497-548.  In:  Kapelle, M. and A. Brown.  Bosques Nublados del Neotrópico. National Institute of Biodiversity (InBIO): San José, Costa Rica. 698pp.  [Ecuador.  In: Neotropical Cloud Forests]

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2000.  Restoration of Andean Montane Forests for Conservation and Development.  Pp. 59-69.  In:  Price, M. and N. Butt (editors).  Forests in Sustainable Mountain Development: A State of Knowledge Report for 2000″. IUFRO. CABI Publications. Oxford: 590pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O.  2000. Prólogo y artículo: Los Desafíos de la Ecología en Latinoamérica en el Próximo Milenio.  Pp. 43-48. En: Jiménez, P. (editor).  Ecología y Desarrollo Sostenible: Reto de América Latina para el Tercer Milenio. Memorias del IV Congreso Latinoamericano de Ecología.  Instituto Regional de Ciencias Ambientales, UNSA, Arequipa. 284pp.   [Prologue and article:  The challenges of Ecology in Latin America in the next millennium. In: Sustainable development and ecology: the challenge for Latin America into the next millennium].

Sarmiento, F.O.  2000.  Lexical and cognitive issues for mountain research: A need to understand Andean landscapes?  Pp.-101-105. In:  Debarbieux, B. and F. Guillet (editors). Mountain regions: A research subject? International Mountain Research Workshop.  Autrans. 234pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O.  1999.  Terminología ecológica unificada para conservación y desarrollo sustentable de América Latina. Pp. 265-268. En: Sarmiento, F.O. and J. Hidalgo (editores). Desarrollo Sustentable de Montañas: Entendiendo las interfaces ecológicas para la gestión de los paisajes culturales en los Andes.  Memorias III Simposio Internacional AMA.  Corporación Editora Nacional. Quito: 406 pp.  [Ecological terminology unified for conservation and sustainable development of Latin America.  In:  Sustainable Mountain Development: Understanding ecological interfaces for the management of Andean Cultural Landscapes].

*Sarmiento, F.O.  1997.  Restauración de paisajes Tropandinos: el desafío para la conservación de áreas frágiles en los Andes Tropicales. Pp 375-383. In: Liberman, M. and C. Baeid (editores).  Desarrollo sostenible de ecosistemas de montaña: Manejo de áreas frágiles en los Andes.  UNU-PL-480.  La Paz: 473pp.   [Restoration of Tropandean landscapes: a conservation challenge for fragile areas in the tropical Andes. In: Sustainable development of mountains: managing Andean fragile areas]

*Sarmiento, F.O. 1995. Restoration of Equatorial Andes: The challenge for conservation of tropandean landscapes. pp. 637-651  In: Biodiversity and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Forests.  Churchill, S., H. Balslev, E. Forero and J. Luteyn (editors).  The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY: 702pp.

*Sarmiento, F.O.  1993.  Human impacts on the cloud forests of the upper Guayllabamba river basin, Ecuador, and suggested management responses. pp. 183-190.  In: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests.   Hamilton, L., J.Juvik and F. Scatena (editors).  The East West Center.  Honolulu: 284pp.